Risks of anesthesia free pet dental cleanings
“Anesthesia free” may seem to most like a less risky procedure for your dog or cat than a veterinary dental cleaning under anesthesia. Of course we all love our pets and are nervous about the idea of them going under anesthesia. However, when it comes to pet dental health, the risks of periodontal disease and oral health problems due to lack of proper dental care far outweigh the risk of anesthesia.
* The teeth on the visible surface may appear to be clean and healthy however, below the gum line is where periodontal disease is of concern. Anesthesia free dentals are strictly cosmetic meant to make the teeth look better when in fact it is very harmful to the teeth.
Consider the following about anesthesia free pet dental cleanings and periodontal disease:
Periodontal disease is the most common clinical condition among adult dogs and cats. Unfortunately, there are often no visible signs of periodontal disease until there is so much damage beneath the gum-line that the pet often has bone loss and loses teeth. Anesthesia free dental procedures have no way of cleaning beneath the gum line to prevent periodontal disease, nor are they able to look beneath the gum-line to identify problems before they become painful and expensive to treat.
During an anesthesia free dental procedure, the surface of your pet’s teeth are scaled with an instrument leaving grooves in the pet’s teeth and a rough surface primed for the adherence of more bacteria. This process occurs rapidly and is usually worse than before the cleaning was done. This makes it necessary to repeat the procedure.
Your pet is very likely uncomfortable and in pain during an anesthesia free dental procedure and is required to be restrained for long periods of time while a sharp instrument is used in the mouth. This is very dangerous and can result in damage to the gums or cheeks. A veterinary cleaning allows them to undergo a proper cleaning without any pain or discomfort.
Painful conditions can’t be identified during an anesthesia free pet dental procedure. It is impossible to do x-rays and adequately examine all surfaces of your pet’s oral cavity while awake. Radiographs and a veterinary oral health evaluation are vital in detecting problems early while they are relatively easy and much less expensive to treat.
Anesthesia free dental cleanings give pet owners a false sense of security. Unfortunately, just because their pet’s teeth appear whiter doesn’t mean they are free from oral disease.
The cost of an anesthesia free dental procedure is cheaper in the short run. However, pet owners are risking the need for much higher costs to care for severe dental problems that have gone unidentified for a number of years.
For the above reasons, we feel that while it may be aesthetically pleasing for people to have their dog's teeth cleaned in this manner and undoubtedly financially appealing, it will most likely cost more in the long run, provides no health benefits, and may be harmful to your pet.
H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus
Canine influenza virus (CIV) is a type of influenza A that is adapted to dogs. There are two different CIVs in North America.
H3N8 CIV was first identified in Florida in the early 2000s and was the result of adaptation of an equine influenza strain to dogs. This virus is still present in the US but the incidence of disease appears to be relatively low.
H3N2 CIV is a more recently encountered strain in North America. It is believed to have originated in Asia as a result of direct transmission of an avian H3N2 virus to dogs. It has spread widely in the US, causing outbreaks in many regions. H3N2 CIV was first identified in Canada in southwestern Ontario in late December 2017.
Transmission of CIV, involves direct contact between animals, short-distance aerosol transmission and indirect transmission from contaminated objects. Direct contact poses the highest risk. Owners can potentially spread the virus through short-term carriage of CIV on their bodies or clothing. Infected dogs can start shedding CIV before the onset of disease (usually ~24h before), so dogs showing no symptoms can be a source of infection.
H3N2 influenza causes symptoms that are indistinguishable from other upper respiratory infections such as "Kennel Cough". Dogs of any age can be affected, although disease is more likely to be severe in very young and old dogs, as well as brachycephalic breeds. Coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, ocular discharge, decreased appetite and fever are the main signs. Most dogs fully recover within 2-3 weeks. Complications are uncommon but the true incidence of severe disease associated with H3N2 CIV is not well understood. Secondary bacterial pneumonia is the main concern. Fatal infections are rare but can occur.
There are no specific treatments. Supportive care (e.g. cough suppressants) should be provided, as needed. Antibiotics are not indicated for CIV infection, but occasionally may be needed if a secondary bacterial component develops.
Commercial vaccines are available. These may be against H3N8 or both H3N8 and H3N2. Vaccination is not 100% effective but can reduce the risk and potentially severity of infection. A minimum of 2 doses is required, 2-4 weeks apart. CIV vaccination is a non-core vaccine that should be considered based on the risk of exposure and the risk of complications of infection.
Old age is not a disease. There are a lot of options to help improve your senior pet's quality of life
Aging is a natural process. Although many complex physical changes occur in advancing years, age in itself is not a disease. Even though many conditions that affect older pets are not curable, they can often be controlled. The key to making sure your senior pet has the healthiest and highest quality of life possible is to recognize and reduce factors that may be health risks, detect disease as early as possible, correct or delay the progression of disease, and improve or maintain the health of your furry friend.
Wellness testing is a program tailored around senior pets. Cats over the age of 8 and dogs over the age of 7 are considered seniors. Regular physical exams and blood work are recommended to detect early or hidden diseases in pets that appear to be healthy. In older cats and dogs , Wellness Testing is also used to monitor stable but ongoing health problems.
Our pets are very good at hiding illness. If your veterinarian can detect early changes in blood work we can slow the progression of the disease or in some cases correct the problem before permanent damage occurs.
Wellness testing is recommended at least once a year combined with a full physical exam. One year of your pets life is equivalent to 4 human years! Your veterinarian may recommend more frequent testing depending on age, life style of your pet or if signs of disease are present. Minor changes in the blood work may signal the onset of a disease or the deterioration of an existing condition before there are any visible signs.
Wellness testing usually consists of a full CBC (Complete blood count) which checks the different cells in your pets blood. Red blood cells (RBC) are assessed for signs of anemia, any abnormal cells, and check their oxygen carrying capabilities. The white blood cells (WBC) fight off infections in the body and respond to inflammation. Platelet levels are assessed to make sure your pets blood can clot properly. A microscopic exam of the blood is performed to look at detailed changes in the cells. It can show evidence of parasites, infection, deficiencies and even cancer.
A Comprehensive profile is performed to assess the internal organ function. This panel will check liver, kidney, and pancreatic function. It also checks sugar levels and electrolytes that circulate in the bloodstream. Early detection of any changes to these values is key to slowing the progression of disease.
Analysis of urine can tell us a lot about the health of your pet. It provides information about how well the kidneys are working and identifies inflammation and infection in the urinary system; it also helps to detect diabetes and can be useful in the diagnosis of cancer within the urinary system.
Thyroid testing is recommended for senior pets especially cats. Dogs are prone to hypothyroidism (low hormone production) where cats are prone to an over production of hormone. Hyperthyroidism in senior cats is a very common condition. Common signs of hyperthyroidism in cats are unexplained weight loss, increased appetite, restlessness, increased activity, increased thirst and urination, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Routine wellness testing can help us detect early signs of disease and allow us to correct or control medical problems which help to ensure that your pet will be healthy and happy for as long as possible!
Echinococcus Multilocularis, a small tapeworm with a big name is causing big concerns in Ontario. This tapeworm is normally found in wild canids (Coyotes, foxes) and can infect dogs. The intestinal form of the worm does not make these animals sick. The concern arises when something or someone ingests tapeworm eggs from the feces of an infected animal, potentially leading to a different form of infection. In this form the parasite causes tumor like cysts to develop in various parts of the body, particularly the liver. The condition can be very difficult to treat by the time it is diagnosed.
A study published by Emerging Infectious Diseases (2019) collected fecal samples from 460 wild canids in Ontario and found that 23% of them were positive for Echinococcus Multilocularis, infection was heavily concentrated in western-central Ontario.
These results show that this parasite is by now well established, at least in parts of Ontario. There is exposure risk through direct or indirect contact with wild canid feces. Dogs that are prone to eating feces or small rodents (dead or alive) are at highest risk for exposure. Exposed dogs may show signs of infection or be healthy carriers of Echinococcus shedding eggs in their feces. People are also at risk of exposure from their pets or coming into contact with fecal contaminated outdoor areas.
The incubation period (the time from ingesting eggs to the time you get sick) is very long, typically 5-15 years. That means we may not know what is truly happening in people for quite some time.
What can we do to prevent exposure? Avoid contact with wild canids and wild canid feces as much as possible. Prevent and treat intestinal infections in our pets. We can treat dogs for tapeworm but it is not usually part of routine deworming, ask your veterinarian about adding a tapeworm prevention!
Overdose Overachievers What Happens When a Pet Ingests Multiple Dangerous Drugs
For Immediate Release Contact: Dr. Renee Schmid Pet Poison Helpline (952) 806-3803
MINNEAPOLIS, Minn. (Nov. 16, 2022) – When your pet accidentally ingests one of your human medications, it can be of concern. The specific drug may be poisonous to nonhumans, or the strength may be dangerous. What happens, however, when a pet accidentally ingests multiple medications? That’s when you want the toxicology experts at Pet Poison Helpline by your side.
“Due to the vast array of human medications, most veterinarians don’t have extensive knowledge regarding the toxicology of them on pets,” said Renee Schmid, DVM, DABT, DABVT, a senior veterinary toxicologist at Pet Poison Helpline. “It becomes even more challenging for veterinary teams when they’re treating a pet who has ingested multiple medications. Not only does the veterinarian need to potentially be concerned about each specific medication, but also its potential interaction with other ingested drugs. Pet Poison Helpline veterinary toxicologists like myself face that challenge on a regular basis, which is why we offer expert advice that both pet owners and the veterinary community can trust.” In the first 10 months of this year alone, Pet Poison Helpline has assisted with more than 7,600 multi-drug cases, including one that involved 30 medications and supplements.
Pet Poison Helpline is a division of SafetyCall International, which offers adverse event management services for some of the nation’s largest consumer product manufacturers, including the majority of veterinary pharmaceutical companies. As a result, the company has developed an extensive database of hundreds of thousands of household and commercial products and medications built over 30 years. Because of its proprietary data and years of experience, the toxicology team has access to answers others simply don’t.
“As we manage and document cases daily, our cumulative knowledge base continues to grow, allowing us to better inform our clients,” explains Dr. Schmid. “It is this unique toxicology knowledge and expertise that makes us your first and continuing line of defense, particularly when a pet ingests multiple medications.”
“Just this past October we had a case where a five-year-old dog from Georgia may have ingested more than two dozen types of drugs and supplements while his owner was organizing her medications in bed,” said Dr. Schmid. “The next morning the owner woke up to find her dog Murphy gagging, trying to vomit and showing signs of lethargy. The immediate challenge for the veterinary team was to review the list of potential medications ingested and determining which were dangerous, at what dose and whether there were any potentially dangerous interactions. There were several medications that could potentially cause the clinical signs Murphy was displaying. For example, the list of drugs included Adderall and amitriptyline, which produce central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular effects. Fortunately, after treatment and a day in the hospital, Murphy was able to return home healthy.”
Not only can each ingestion case be different, but so can the way the pet encounters the dangerous medications. Sometimes it is not as simple as the animal finding a supply of medication on a counter or chewing into a pill bottle. Take the case of Petunia, a two-yearold English Bulldog who lives in Colorado Springs, Colo.
“An ill person in the home was on 11 different medications, and the person vomited on the floor 30 minutes after taking the pills,” said Dr. Schmid. “Dogs being dogs, they aren’t the most discriminate of eaters and Petunia quickly consumed the material. When we’re presented with a situation like this, the challenge is not just in determining if the medication will be problematic. Now, we need to identify how long it will take for that medication to be absorbed or removed from the stomach and would the timeframe between when the owner took their medications to when the pet ingested the vomit still allow for issues to occur.”
In Petunia’s case, the main medications of concern were those that are used for patients with heart disease; metoprolol, ranolazine and isosorbide mononitrate. With these medications, especially in combination, bradycardia, hypotension, and arrhythmias may occur. There is also a risk for possible electrolyte changes including low blood glucose and elevated potassium with overdoses of metoprolol. Based on the timing from when the medications were taken and when vomiting occurred, there was a potential for medications of concern to still be in the vomitus.
In another case, a puppy named Wanda ingested 15 different prescription medications and over the counter (OTC) supplements from a pill container that had a two-day supply remaining. For animals, the potential poisoning risk is not limited to prescription medications. Many dietary supplements and OTC medications can also be concerning. After calculating ingested doses for each and comparing to their toxic doses, the main concern was with Effexor and 5-HTP. The pet’s clinical signs were also consistent with this potential diagnosis.
“While veterinarians have a broad range of medical knowledge, most have limited experience in toxicology,” explained Dr. Schmid. “In times of emergency or distress, the professionals at Pet Poison Helpline have the unique knowledge and experience to assist both pet owners and veterinary personnel in making time-critical, lifesaving decisions. Hopefully you and your pet will never have to face this situation, but if you do, know that there is a trusted source available just a phone call away.”
Pet Poison Helpline, your trusted source for toxicology and pet health advice in times of potential emergency, is available 24 hours, seven days a week for pet owners and veterinary professionals who require assistance treating a potentially poisoned pet. We are an independent, nationally recognized animal poison control center triple licensed by the Boards of Veterinary Medicine, Medicine and Pharmacy providing unmatched professional leadership and expertise. Our veterinarians and board-certified toxicologists provide treatment advice for poisoning cases of all species, including dogs, cats, birds, small mammals, large animals and exotic species. As the most cost-effective option for animal poison control care, Pet Poison Helpline’s fee of $75 per incident includes follow-up consultations for the duration of the case. Based in Minneapolis, Pet Poison Helpline is available in North America by calling 800-213-6680. Additional information can be found online at www.petpoisonhelpline.com.
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No Bones (or Bone Treats) About It: Reasons Not to Give Your Dog Bones
NOTE: FDA initially published this Consumer Update in 2015, and has had information on this topic on its website since 2010. The agency regularly updates the number of reports around this time of year as a reminder to pet owners about the potential problems associated with giving bone treats or turkey/chicken bones during the holidays.
Many dog owners know not to toss a turkey or chicken bone to their dog; those bones are just too brittle. But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says the risk goes beyond that, especially when it comes to the “bone treats” you may see at the store.
What’s a Bone Treat?
Bone treats are real bones that have been processed, sometimes flavored, and packaged for dogs. Giving your dog a “bone treat” might lead to an unexpected trip to your veterinarian, a possible emergency surgery, or even death for your pet.
FDA has received about 68 reports of pet illnesses related to "bone treats,” which differ from uncooked butcher-type bones because they are processed and packaged for sale as dog treats. The reports were received between November 1, 2010 and September 12, 2017. A variety of commercially-available bone treats for dogs—including treats described as “Ham Bones,” “Pork Femur Bones,” “Rib Bones,” and “Smokey Knuckle Bones”—were listed in the reports. The products may be dried through a smoking process or by baking, and may contain other ingredients such as preservatives, seasonings, and smoke flavorings.
So if you’re planning to give your dog a stocking full of bone treats this holiday season, you may want to reconsider. According to Carmela Stamper, a veterinarian in the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at the FDA, “Giving your dog a bone treat might lead to an unexpected trip to your veterinarian, a possible emergency surgery, or even death for your pet.”
Illnesses reported to FDA by owners and veterinarians in dogs that have eaten bone treats have included:
Gastrointestinal obstruction (blockage in the digestive tract)
Cuts and wounds in the mouth or on the tonsils
Bleeding from the rectum, and/or
Death. Approximately fifteen dogs reportedly died after eating a bone treat.
The reports, sent in by pet owners and veterinarians, involved about 90 dogs (some reports included more than one dog). In addition, FDA received seven reports of product problems, such as moldy- appearing bones, or bone treats splintering when chewed by the pet.
Tips to Keep Your Dog Safe
Here are some tips to keep your dog safe:
Chicken bones and other bones from the kitchen table can cause injury when chewed by pets, too. So be careful to keep platters out of reach when you’re cooking or the family is eating.
Be careful what you put in the trash can. Dogs are notorious for helping themselves to the turkey carcass or steak bones disposed of there.
Talk with your veterinarian about other toys or treats that are most appropriate for your dog. There are many available products made with different materials for dogs to chew on.
“We recommend supervising your dog with any chew toy or treat, especially one she hasn’t had before,” adds Stamper. “And if she ‘just isn’t acting right,’ call your veterinarian right away!”
To report a problem with a pet food or treat, please visit FDA’s Web page on “How to Report a Pet Food Complaint.”